Islet transplantation may be used to treat type I diabetes. Despite tremendous progress in islet isolation, culture, and preservation, the clinical use of this modality of treatment is limited due to post-transplantation challenges to the islets such as the failure to revascularize and immune destruction of the islet graft. In addition, the need for lifelong strong immunosuppressing agents restricts the use of this option to a limited subset of patients, which is further restricted by the unmet need for large numbers of islets. Inadequate islet supply issues are being addressed by regeneration therapy and xenotransplantation. Various strategies are being tried to prevent β-cell death, including immunoisolation using semipermeable biocompatible polymeric capsules and induction of immune tolerance. Genetic modification of islets promises to complement all these strategies toward the success of islet transplantation. Furthermore, synergistic application of more than one strategy is required for improving the success of islet transplantation. This review will critically address various insights developed in each individual strategy and for multipronged approaches, which will be helpful in achieving better outcomes.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Medicine