Botulinum toxin in the management of blepharospasm: Current evidence and recent developments

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20 Scopus citations


Blepharospasm is a focal (although usually bilateral) dystonia of the orbicularis oculi muscles, producing excessive eye closure. This produces significant disability through functional blindness. Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) have become the treatment of choice for blepharospasm; the impressive response rate and the tolerable safety profile have been proven through multiple clinical studies. There are currently four BoNT approved in the United States for different indications - we review the data on blepharospasm for each of these drugs. Currently, incobotulinumtoxinA and onabotulinumtoxinA have the most evidence of benefit for patients with blepharospasm. Current evidence, recent development and future directions are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)82-91
Number of pages10
JournalTherapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 2015


  • Botox
  • Dysport
  • Myobloc
  • Xeomin
  • blepharospasm
  • botulinum toxin
  • chemodenervation
  • dystonia

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Neurology
  • Clinical Neurology


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