Due to the affinity of BVDV for the fetus and for cells of lymphatic organs of infected cattle, reproductive failure or immunosuppression, respectively, are likely consequences of BVDV infections of susceptible cattle. Infection of susceptible pregnant cattle with noncytopathic (ncp) BVDV results in transplacental infection with induction of maternal and fetal innate and adaptive immune responses. Differences in maternal innate and adaptive immune responses are evident in late gestation between cows carrying fetuses persistently-infected (PI) with BVDV and cows with fetuses transiently-infected with BVDV. Fetal innate and adaptive immune responses to ncp BVDV infection are defined by fetal age and developmental stage of the fetal immune system. Since a functional fetal adaptive immune response does not occur in the early fetus, immunotolerance to ncp BVDV is established, virus replicates unrestricted in fetal tissues and calves are born immunotolerant and PI with the virus. In the last trimester of gestation, the fetal immune system is adequately developed to respond in an efficacious manner, most commonly resulting in the birth of a clinically normal calf with pre-colostral antibodies. Immunosuppression due to postnatal acute ncp BVDV infections of susceptible calves may contribute to the occurrence and severity of multi-factorial respiratory tract and enteric diseases.
- Bovine viral diarrhea virus
- Fetal responses
- Maternal responses
- Neonatal responses
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
- Immunology and Microbiology(all)