Broad Spectrum Mixed Lineage Kinase Type 3 Inhibition and HIV-1 Persistence in Macrophages

Priyanka Saminathan, Bhavesh D. Kevadiya, Daniel F. Marker, Howard E. Gendelman, Santhi Gorantla, Harris A. Gelbard

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Mixed lineage kinases (MLKs) are a group of serine-threonine kinases that evolved in part to respond to endogenous and exogenous insults that result in oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory responses from innate immune cells. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) thrives in these conditions and is associated with the development of associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). As part of a drug discovery program to identify new therapeutic strategies for HAND, we created a library of broad spectrum MLK inhibitors with drug-like properties. Serendipitously, the lead compound, URMC-099 has proved useful not only in reversing damage to synaptic architecture in models of HAND, but also serves to restore autophagy as a protective response when given in concert with nanoformulated antiretroviral therapy (nanoART) in persistently infected macrophages. These findings are reviewed in the context of MLK3 biology and cellular signaling pathways relevant to new HIV-1 therapies. [Figure not available: see fulltext.].

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)44-51
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Mar 15 2019


  • Autophagy
  • Central nervous system
  • Human immunodeficiency virus type 1
  • Macrophage
  • Mixed lineage kinase

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience (miscellaneous)
  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology
  • Pharmacology


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