Cadmium- and chromium-induced oxidative stress, DNA damage, and apoptotic cell death in cultured human chronic myelogenous leukemic K562 cells, promyelocytic leukemic HL-60 cells, and normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

D. Bagchi, S. S. Joshi, M. Bagchi, J. Balmoori, E. J. Benner, C. A. Kuszynski, S. J. Stohs

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

100 Scopus citations

Abstract

Sodium dichromate [Cr(VI)] and cadmium chloride [Cd(II)] are both cytotoxic and mutagenic. This study examined the toxic and apoptotic potentials of these two cations on three cell types in vitro, namely, human chronic myelogenous leukemic (CML) K562 cells, promyelocytic leukemic HL-60 cells, and normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The cells were incubated with 0-100 μM concentrations of the two cations for 0, 24, or 48 hours at 37°C. Both Cr(VI) and Cd(II) induced changes in intracellular oxidized states of cells, which were detected using laser scanning confocal microscopy. Cell cycle modulation and apoptosis of the K562 cells by Cr(VI) and Cd(II) were determined by flow cytometry. Significant decreases in the G2/M phase were observed in the Cr(VI) and Cd(II) treated CML cells compared with untreated cells. At 12.5 μM, Cr(VI) induced greater apoptosis in K562 cells as compared with Cd(II). In the K562 cells, 2.2- and 3.0-fold increases in DNA fragmentation were observed following incubation with 12.5 and 25 μM Cr(VI), respectively, and 1.2- and 1.7-fold increases in DNA fragmentation were observed with Cd(II). Furthermore, approximately 2.7- and 4.9-fold increases in cytochrome c reduction were observed following incubation with 12.5 and 25 μM Cr(VI), respectively, and 1.6- and 3.3-fold increases in cytochrome c reduction were observed with Cd(II), demonstrating enhanced production of superoxide anion. Approximately 3.1 to 6-fold increases in hydroxyl radical production were observed following incubation of the K562 cells with these cations at 12.5 and 25 μM concentrations. These results in K562 cells were compared with promyelocytic leukemic HL-60 cells and normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. More pronounced effects were observed on K562 and HL-60 cells, and much lesser effects were observed on normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The results demonstrate that both cations are toxic, producing oxidative tissue damage and apoptosis. Furthermore, more drastic effects were observed on K562 and HL-60 cells as compared with normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)33-41
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
Volume14
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - 2000

Keywords

  • Apoptosis
  • Cadmium (II) Chloride
  • Chronic Myelogenous Leukemic K562 cells
  • DNA Fragmentation
  • Flow Cytometry
  • HL-60 cells
  • Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells
  • Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy
  • Sodium Dichromate
  • Superoxide Anion and Hydroxyl Radicals

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Medicine
  • Molecular Biology
  • Toxicology
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

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