cAIMP administration in humanized mice induces a chimerization-level-dependent STING response

Anna H.F. Andersen, Rikke Olesen, Kasper L. Jønsson, Jesper F. Højen, Christian Krapp, Katharina Mack, Martin K. Thomsen, Lars Østergaard, Martin Tolstrup, Frederik Dagnæs-Hansen, Martin R. Jakobsen, Paul W. Denton

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


It is well understood that the STING signalling pathway is critical for generating a robust innate immune response to pathogens. Human and mouse STING signalling pathways are not identical, however. For example, mice lack IFI16, which has been proven important for the human STING pathway. Therefore, we investigated whether humanized mice are an appropriate experimental platform for exploring the human STING signalling cascade in vivo. We found that NOG mice reconstituted with human cord blood haematopoietic stem cells (humanized NOG mice) exhibit human STING signalling responses to an analogue of the cyclic di-nucleotide cGAMP. There was an increase in the proportions of monocytes in the lungs of mice receiving cGAMP analogue. The most robust levels of STING expression and STING-induced responses were observed in mice exhibiting the highest levels of human chimerization. Notably, differential levels of STING in lung versus spleen following cGAMP analogue treatment suggest that there are tissue-specific kinetics of STING activation and/or degradation in effector versus inductive sites. We also examined the mouse innate immune response to cGAMP analogue treatment. We detected that mouse cells in the immunodeficient NOG mice responded to the cGAMP analogue and they do so with distinct kinetics from the human response. In conclusion, humanized NOG mice represent a valuable experimental model for examining in vivo human STING responses.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)163-172
Number of pages10
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jun 2019
Externally publishedYes


  • cGAMP
  • humanized mice
  • inflammation
  • innate immunology
  • monocytes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology


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