Cardiac stem cell niche, mmp9, and culture and differentiation of embryonic stem cells

Paras Kumar Mishra, Nicholas John Kuypers, Shree Ram Singh, Noel Diaz Leiberh, Vishalakshi Chavali, Suresh C. Tyagi

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

8 Scopus citations


Embryonic stem cells (ESC) are totipotent, self-renewing, and clonogenic, having potential to differentiate into a wide variety of cell types. Due to regenerative capability, it has tremendous potential for treating myocardial infarction (death of myocardial tissue) and type 1 diabetes (death of pancreatic beta cells). Understanding the components regulating ESC differentiation is the key to unlock the regenerative potential of ESC-based therapies. Both the stiffness of extracellular matrix (ECM) and surrounding niche/microenvironment play pivotal roles in ESC differentiation. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9) induces fi brosis that causes stiffness of the ECM and impairs differentiation of cardiac stem cells into cardiomyocytes. Here, we describe the method of ESC culture and differentiation, and the expression of MMP9 and its inhibitor, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-4 (TIMP4) in differentiating ESC.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationStem Cell Niche
Subtitle of host publicationMethods and Protocols
PublisherHumana Press Inc.
Number of pages11
ISBN (Print)9781627035071
StatePublished - 2013

Publication series

NameMethods in Molecular Biology
ISSN (Print)1064-3745


  • Cardiomyocytes
  • Differentiation
  • Extracellular matrix
  • MMP9
  • Stem cell
  • TIMP-4

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Biology
  • Genetics


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