Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is characterized by the t(11;14)(q13;q32) translocation resulting in overexpression of cyclin D1. However, a small subset of cyclin D12 MCL has been recognized, and approximately one-half of them harbor CCND2 translocations while the primary event in cyclinD12/D22MCL remains elusive. To identify other potentialmechanisms driving MCL pathogenesis, we investigated 56 cyclin D12/SOX111 MCL by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), whole-genome/exome sequencing, and gene-expression and copy-number arrays. FISH with break-apart probes identified CCND2 rearrangements in 39 cases (70%) but not CCND3 rearrangements. We analyzed 3 of these negative cases by whole-genome/exome sequencing and identified IGK (n 5 2) and IGL (n 5 1) enhancer hijackings near CCND3 that were associated with cyclin D3 overexpression. By specific FISH probes, including the IGK enhancer region, we detected 10 additional cryptic IGK juxtapositions to CCND3 (6 cases) and CCND2 (4 cases) in MCL that overexpressed, respectively, these cyclins. A minor subset of 4 cyclin D12 MCL cases lacked cyclin D rearrangements and showed upregulation of CCNE1 and CCNE2. These cases had blastoid morphology, high genomic complexity, and CDKN2A and RB1 deletions. Both genomic and gene-expression profiles of cyclin D12 MCL cases were indistinguishable from cyclin D11 MCL. In conclusion, virtually all cyclin D12 MCLs carry CCND2/CCND3 rearrangements with immunoglobulin genes, including a novel IGK/L enhancer hijacking mechanism. A subset of cyclin D12/D22/D32 MCL with aggressive features has cyclin E dysregulation. Specific FISH probes may allow the molecular identification and diagnosis of cyclin D12 MCL.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cell Biology