Introduction: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) secondary to left-sided heart disease (Group 2 PH) is a frequent complication of heart failure (HF) and is a heterogeneous phenotypic disorder that worsens exercise capacity, increases risk for hospitalization and survival independent of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) or stage of HF. Areas covered: In this review, an update of the current knowledge and some potential challenges about the pathophysiology and treatments of group 2 PH in patients with HF of either preserved or reduced ejection fraction are provided. Also, this review discusses the epidemiology and provides hints for the optimal evaluation and diagnosis of these patients to prevent misclassification of their pulmonary hypertension. Expert opinion: There are many of areas lacking knowledge and understanding in the field of pulmonary hypertension associated to left heart disease (PH-LHD) that should be addressed in the future. Further research should be performed, in terms of pathobiology, and understanding the predisposition (genetic susceptibility and contributing factors) of the different phenotypes of this disorder. More clinical trials targeting new therapeutic options and specific PH therapies are warranted to help this increasing important patient group as the current guidelines recommend to only treat the underlying left-sided heart disease.
- Pulmonary hypertension and LV dysfunction and mechanism
- pulmonary hypertension and management
- pulmonary hypertension and provocative challenges
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Internal Medicine
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine