Characteristics of emotional disturbance among female students

Douglas Cullinan, Susan Osborne, Michael H. Epstein

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

18 Scopus citations


This article reports data on characteristics of emotional disturbance (ED) among female students with and without ED. Teachers rated a national sample of 689 girls on the Scale for Assessing Emotional Disturbance, to measure the five characteristics of ED and a variable called social maladjustment. We compared the two categories (with ED, without ED), three school levels (elementary, middle, high), and two races (African American, European American). Girls with ED exhibited more maladaptive functioning on all variables, but category by school level and category by race interactions varied according to different characteristics. Girls with ED showed a high level of comorbid ED characteristics, again with differences by school level and race. The results have implications for understanding girls with ED and educating them appropriately.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)276-290
Number of pages15
JournalRemedial and Special Education
Issue number5
StatePublished - 2004
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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