Characteristics of emotional disturbance of elementary school students

Douglas Cullinan, Chan Evans, Michael H. Epstein, Gail Ryser

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations


The five characteristics of emotional disturbance (ED) as stated in the IDEA definition and a variable called socially maladjusted, were investigated. Participants were African American and European American elementary school boys and girls, 336 with ED and 548 without ED. Variables were measured with the Scale for Assessing Emotional Disturbance. Students with ED exceeded those without ED on all characteristics. Student category and race interacted for all characteristics in various ways. There were also interactions of category and gender. Among students with ED, one form of comorbidity was more prevalent among girls than boys, but there were no differences by race. Results clarify how students with ED exhibit the five characteristics associated with having ED and the socially maladjusted condition and show the need to consider all five characteristics in understanding the ED disability.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)94-110
Number of pages17
JournalBehavioral Disorders
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2003

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Clinical Psychology

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Characteristics of emotional disturbance of elementary school students'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this