Characteristics of Referrals for Gender Dysphoria over a 13-Year Period

Melinda Chen, John Fuqua, Erica A. Eugster

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

78 Scopus citations


Purpose Our Pediatric Endocrinology Clinic has seen a sharp increase in referrals for gender dysphoria (GD) during recent years. However, the frequency and characteristics of referrals have not been objectively examined. Methods A retrospective chart review of referrals for GD during the past 13 years was performed. Variables analyzed included numbers of referrals per year, patient characteristics, comorbid conditions, and hormonal therapy. Timing of referral and eligibility for treatment were measured against established recommendations. Results Of 38 patients, 74% were referred during the last 3 years. Most patients presented late in puberty before a GD-specific psychological evaluation and few were eligible for hormonal treatment at baseline. Over half had psychiatric and/or developmental comorbidities. Conclusions A dramatic increase in referrals for GD since 2002 was confirmed. Enhanced provider education and outreach regarding care of patients with GD are needed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)369-371
Number of pages3
JournalJournal of Adolescent Health
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 1 2016


  • Gender dysphoria
  • Referrals
  • Transgender

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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