Characterization of intact proviruses in blood and lymph node from HIV-infected individuals undergoing analytical treatment interruption

Line K. Vibholm, Julio C.C. Lorenzi, Joy A. Pai, Yehuda Z. Cohen, Thiago Y. Oliveira, John P. Barton, Marco Garcia Noceda, Ching Lan Lu, Yuria Ablanedo-Terrazas, Perla M. Del Rio Estrada, Gustavo Reyes-Teran, Martin Tolstrup, Paul W. Denton, Tine Damsgaard, Ole S. Søgaard, Michel C. Nussenzweig

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Scopus citations

Abstract

The role of lymphoid tissue as a potential source of HIV-1 rebound following interruption of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is uncertain. To address this issue, we compared the latent viruses obtained from CD4 T cells in peripheral blood and lymph nodes to viruses emerging during treatment interruption. Latent viruses were characterized by sequencing near-full-length (NFL) proviral DNA and env from viral outgrowth assays (VOAs). Five HIV-1-infected individuals on ART were studied, four of whom participated in a clinical trial of a TLR9 agonist that included an analytical treatment interruption. We found that 98% of intact or replication-competent clonal sequences overlapped between blood and lymph node. In contrast, there was no overlap between 205 latent reservoir and 125 rebound sequences in the four individuals who underwent treatment interruption. However, rebound viruses could be accounted for by recombination. The data suggest that CD4 T cells carrying latent viruses circulate between blood and lymphoid tissues in individuals on ART and support the idea that recombination may play a role in the emergence of rebound viremia. IMPORTANCE HIV-1 persists as a latent infection in CD4 T cells that can be found in lymphoid tissues in infected individuals during ART. However, the importance of this tissue reservoir and its contribution to viral rebound upon ART interruption are not clear. In this study, we sought to compare latent HIV-1 from blood and lymph node CD4 T cells from five HIV-1-infected individuals. Further, we analyzed the contribution of lymph node viruses to viral rebound. We observed that the frequencies of intact proviruses were the same in blood and lymph node. Moreover, expanded clones of T cells bearing identical proviruses were found in blood and lymph node. These latent reservoir sequences did not appear to be the direct origin of rebound virus. Instead, latent proviruses were found to contribute to the rebound compartment by recombination.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numberY
JournalJournal of virology
Volume93
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - 2019
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • ATI
  • HIV-1
  • Infectious diseases
  • Lymph node
  • Recombination

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology
  • Immunology
  • Insect Science
  • Virology

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