The keystone zooplankton Daphnia magna has recently been used as a model system for understanding host-microbiota interactions. However, the bacterial species present and functions associated with their genomes are not well understood. In order to understand potential functions of these species, we combined 16S rRNA sequencing and shotgun metagenomics to characterize the whole-organism microbiota of Daphnia magna. We assembled five potentially novel metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) of core bacteria in Daphnia magna. Genes involved in host colonization and immune system evasion were detected across the MAGs. Some metabolic pathways were specific to some MAGs, including sulfur oxidation, nitrate reduction, and flagellar assembly. Amino acid exporters were identified in MAGs identified as important for host fitness, and pathways for key vitamin biosynthesis and export were identified across MAGs. In total, our examination of functions in these MAGs shows a diversity of nutrient acquisition and metabolism pathways present that may benefit the host, as well as genomic signatures of host association and immune system evasion.
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