Characterization of two-photon polymerization process using Raman microspectroscopy

L. J. Jiang, Y. S. Zhou, W. Xiong, Y. Gao, T. Baldacchini, J. F. Silvain, L. Jiang, Y. F. Lu

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

1 Scopus citations


Two-photon polymerization (TPP) is a promising micro/nanofabrication technique, which is capable of fabricating 3D micro/nanostructures beyond the diffraction limit of light. However, the study of TPP process with a focus on the dependence of degree of conversion on TPP parameters using a non-destructive and efficient method is still lacking. We studied the quantitative relationships between the TPP parameters and the cross-linking of an acrylic-based IP-L 780 photoresist via systematic Raman characterization. The differences in the Raman spectra between the non-polymerized and the polymerized IP-L 780 photoresists were observed by probing the excitation of carbon-carbon double bond (C=C) vibrations. We obtained the relationship between the degree of conversion in TPP and the Raman spectra of the IP-L 780 resin, in which the intensity of the characteristic Raman peak of IP-L 780 at 1635 cm-1 decreases with the increase of the TPP laser dose. A mathematic model of the degree of conversion with respective to the TPP parameters, including laser average power and writing speed, has been established. The method provides a simple and effective way to characterize and optimize the TPP micro/nanofabrication processes. The established model for the degree of conversion as the function of TPP parameters will contribute to the advanced 3D TPP micro/nanofabrication by providing a guidance to optimize the laser doses, voxel sizes, and the mechanical strength of the polymers.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationSynthesis and Photonics of Nanoscale Materials XI
ISBN (Print)9780819498823
StatePublished - 2014
EventSynthesis and Photonics of Nanoscale Materials XI - San Francisco, CA, United States
Duration: Feb 2 2014Feb 4 2014

Publication series

NameProceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
ISSN (Print)0277-786X
ISSN (Electronic)1996-756X


ConferenceSynthesis and Photonics of Nanoscale Materials XI
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CitySan Francisco, CA


  • Degree of conversion
  • Raman spectroscopy
  • Two-photon polymerization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Applied Mathematics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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