The detection sensitivity of chlorine (Cl) and sulfur (S) elements is poor using direct laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) because of the high ionization energy of Cl and S. Therefore, a new technique, namely indirect laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (ID-LIBS), was proposed to improve the detection sensitivity of Cl and S elements. The method detected Cl in water by indirectly detecting the excess silver (Ag) after the precipitation reaction of Ag and chloride. Similarly, the method indirectly detected S in water by detecting the excess barium (Ba) after the precipitation reaction of Ba and sulfate, due to Ag and Ba with low ionization energy and easy excitation. The lines of Ag I 546.5 nm and Ba I 553.5 nm were detected. The R2 values of 0.999 and 0.997 were obtained for Cl and S, respectively. The limit of quantitation (LoQ) was 2 mg/L for Cl and 5 mg/L for S. The detection sensitivity was improved by about three orders of magnitude compared to using Cl I 822.17 nm and S I 921.28 nm. The results showed that the technique of indirect LIBS can achieve the sensitive detection of Cl and S in water indicating that the technique has tremendous potential for element analysis of water.
- Indirect LIBS
- Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy
- Water analysis
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Analytical Chemistry