Cell migration and matrix remodeling are key events in tissue repair and restructuring. Osteoblasts are responsible for the production of new bone matrix during bone remodeling. The activity of these cells can be modulated by a number of factors. The current study evaluated the hypothesis that cigarette smoke extract can alter repair and remodeling responses of human osteoprogenitor cells and osteoblast-like cells and, therefore, could explain one mechanism by which cigarette smoking leads to osteoporosis. Human osteoprogenitor cells were isolated from normal human bone marrow and maintained in culture under either control conditions or conditions that induced differentiation into osteoblast-like cells. Both cell types migrated toward fibronectin and PDGF-BB as chemoattractants. Neither responded to TGF-β1. The osteoprogenitor cells were more active in their chemotactic response. The chemotactic response of both cell types was inhibited by cigarette smoke extract in a concentration-dependent manner. Both cell types, when cultured in three-dimensional native collagen gels maintained in floating culture, induced contraction of their surrounding matrices. Contraction was augmented by serum, PDGF-BB, and TGF-β1. Osteoprogenitor cells were less active in inducing contraction than were osteoblast-like cells. Contraction of both cell types was inhibited by cigarette smoke extract. Cigarette smoke extract also inhibited the production of fibronectin by both cell types maintained in three-dimensional culture. Addition of exogenous fibronectin partially restored the ability of the cells to contract three-dimensional collagen gels. The current study demonstrates that cigarette smoke can interfere with the ability of bone cells to participate in repair and remodeling events. Such an effect may be one mechanism leading to the development of osteoporosis.
- Cigarette smoke
- Osteoprogenitor cells
- Tissue repair
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism