Cigarette smoke (CS) exposure and intrinsic factors such as the NADPH oxidases produce high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), ensuing inflammatory tissue injury. We previously demonstrated that CS-generated ROS, particularly hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), impaired adenosine stimulated wound repair. We hypothesized that CS exposure modulates expression of Dual oxidase 1 (Duox-1), a NADPH oxidases known to generate H2O2. To test this hypothesis, we used human bronchial epithelial cell line Nuli-1 and C57BL/6 mice. Cells were treated with 5% CS extract (CSE) for various periods of time, and mice were exposed to whole body CS for six weeks. Both CSE and CS treatment induced increased expression of Duox-1, and silencing of Doux-1 improved the rate of cell wound repair induced by CSE treatment. Nuli-1 cells pretreated with thapsigargin but not calcium ionophore exhibited increased Duox-1 mRNA expression. CSE treatment stimulated PKCα activation, which was effectively blocked by pretreatment with diphenylene iodonium, a NADPH oxidase inhibitor. Compared to control, lungs from CS-exposed mice showed a significant increase in PKCα activity and Duox-1 expression. Collectively, the data demonstrated that CS exposure upregulates expression of Duox-1 protein. This further leads to H2O2 production and PKCα activation, inhibiting A 2A AR-stimulated wound repair.
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