Cigarette smoking, familial hematopoietic cancer, hair dye use, and risk of t(14;18)-defined subtypes of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

Brian C.H. Chiu, Bhavana J. Dave, Aaron Blair, Susan M. Gapstur, Joan S. Chmiel, Angela J. Fought, Shelia Hoar Zahm, Dennis D. Weisenburger

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

23 Scopus citations


Some evidence suggests that smoking, a family history of hematopoietic cancer, and use of hair dyes are associated with t(14;18)-defined subsets of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) in men. To further evaluate these associations and to expand them to women, the authors determined t(14;18)(q32;q21) status by fluorescence in situ hybridization in 172 of 175 tumor blocks from a population-based case-control study conducted in Nebraska during 1983-1986. Exposures in 65 t(14;18)-positive cases and 107 t(14;18)-negative cases were compared with those among 1,432 controls. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using polytomous logistic regression. Among men, smoking was not associated with risk of t(14;18)-positive or -negative NHL. Among women who had ever smoked cigarettes, there was an association with risk of t(14;18)-negative NHL (odds ratio (OR) = 1.9, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1, 3.3) but not t(14;18)-positive NHL (p-difference = 0.01). The risks for t(14;18)-negative NHL among women increased with longer duration (>30 years: OR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.1, 4.1) and early initiation (age ≤20 years: OR = 2.2, 95% CI: 1.1, 4.4) of smoking. A family history of hematopoietic cancer was associated with a twofold higher risk for both t(14;18)-defined NHL subtypes among men and women. Hair dye use was not associated with either subtype. These findings should be interpreted cautiously because of the small sample.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)652-659
Number of pages8
JournalAmerican Journal of Epidemiology
Issue number6
StatePublished - Mar 2007


  • Chromosome aberrations
  • Hair dyes
  • Hematologic neoplasms
  • Lymphoma, non-Hodgkin
  • Risk factors
  • Smoking

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Epidemiology


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