Bovine milk exosomes (BMEs) are being explored in drug delivery despite their rapid elimination by macrophages. We aimed at identifying the BME transporter in murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs). Fluorophore-labeled BMEs were used in transport studies in BMDMs from C57BL/6J and class A scavenger receptor type 1/2 (CASR-1/2) knockout mice and tissue accumulation in macrophage-depleted C57BL/6J mice. Parametric and nonparametric statistics tests for pairwise and multiple comparisons were used. Chemical inhibitors of phagocytosis by cytochalasin D led to a 69 ± 18% decrease in BME uptake compared with controls (P < 0.05), whereas inhibitors of endocytic pathways other than phagocytosis had a modest effect on uptake (P > 0.05). Inhibitors of class A scavenger receptors (CASRs) including CASR-1/2 caused a 70% decrease in BME uptake (P < 0.05). The uptake of BMEs by BMDMs from CASR-1/2 knockout mice was smaller by 58 ± 23% compared with wild-type controls (P < 0.05). Macrophage depletion by clodronate caused a more than 44% decrease in BME uptake in the spleen and lungs (P < 0.05), whereas the decrease observed in liver was not statistically significant. In conclusion, CASR-1/2 facilitates the uptake of BMEs in BMDMs and C57BL/6J mice.
- Bone marrow-derived macrophages
- Class A scavenger receptors
- Milk exosomes
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cell Biology