It has been nearly a century since the original mechanism for charge density wave (CDW) formation was suggested by Peierls. Since then, the term has come to describe several related concepts in condensed matter physics, having their origin in either the electron-phonon or electron-electron interaction. The vast majority of CDW literature deals with systems that are metallic, where discussions of mechanisms related to the Fermi surface are valid. Recently, it has been suggested that semiconducting systems such as TiS3 and TiSe2 exhibit behavior related to CDWs. In such cases, the origin of the behavior is more subtle and intimately tied to electron-electron interactions. We introduce the different classifications of CDW systems that have been proposed and discuss work on the group IV transition metal trichalcogenides (TMTs) (ZrTe3, HfTe3, TiTe3, and TiS3), which are an exciting and emergent material system whose members exhibit quasi-one-dimensional properties. TMTs are van der Waals materials and can be readily studied in the few-layer limit, opening new avenues to manipulating collective states. We emphasize the semiconducting compound TiS3 and suggest how it can be classified based on available data. Although we can conjecture on the origin of the CDW in TiS3, further measurements are required to properly characterize it.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)