Combined untargeted and targeted fingerprinting by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography to track compositional changes on hazelnut primary metabolome during roasting

Marta Cialiè Rosso, Federico Stilo, Carlo Bicchi, Melanie Charron, Ginevra Rosso, Roberto Menta, Stephen E. Reichenbach, Christoph H. Weinert, Carina I. Mack, Sabine E. Kulling, Chiara Cordero

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

This study focuses on the detectable metabolome of high-quality raw hazelnuts (Corylus avellana L.) and on its changes after dry-roasting. Informative fingerprinting was obtained by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with fast-scanning quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC×GC-qMS) combined with dedicated data processing. In particular, combined untargeted and targeted (UT) fingerprinting, based on pattern recognition by template matching, is applied to chromatograms from raw and roasted samples of Tonda Gentile Trilobata and Anakliuri hazelnuts harvested in Italy and Georgia. Lab-scale roasting was designed to develop a desirable organoleptic profile matching industrial standards. Results, based on 430 peak features, reveal that phenotype expression is markedly correlated to cultivar and pedoclimatic conditions. Discriminant components between cultivars are amino acids (valine, alanine, glycine, and proline); organic acids (citric, aspartic, malic, gluconic, threonic, and 4-aminobutanoic acids); and sugars and polyols (maltose, xylulose, xylitol, turanose, mannitol, scyllo-inositol, and pinitol). Of these, alanine, glycine, and proline have a high informational role as precursors of 2-acetyl-and 2-propionylpyrroline, two key-aroma compounds of roasted hazelnuts. Roasting has a decisive impact on metabolite patterns—it caused a marked decrease (−90%) of alanine, proline, leucine and valine, and aspartic and pyroglutamic acid and a −50% reduction of saccharose and galactose.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number525
Pages (from-to)1-18
Number of pages18
JournalApplied Sciences (Switzerland)
Volume11
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 2 2021

Keywords

  • Combined untargeted and targeted fingerprinting
  • Comprehensive-two dimensional gas chromatography
  • Food metabolomics
  • Hazelnut roasting
  • High-quality hazelnuts
  • Primary metabolites
  • Template matching

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Instrumentation
  • Engineering(all)
  • Process Chemistry and Technology
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Fluid Flow and Transfer Processes

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Combined untargeted and targeted fingerprinting by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography to track compositional changes on hazelnut primary metabolome during roasting'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this