Community pharmacist-provided test and treat programs for acute infectious conditions

Renee R. Koski, Nick Klepser, Madelyn Koski, Michael Klepser, Donald Klepser

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Community pharmacists' roles have expanded in recent years to include offering test and treat programs where they perform testing on Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendment (CLIA)-waived point-of-care testing (POCT) devices to diagnose specific acute infectious conditions, such as influenza and group A streptococcus (GAS) pharyngitis, and then potentially prescribe and dispense appropriate antimicrobials. Availability of these services in pharmacies has several benefits, including increased access to care, decreased overutilization of other health care services, and decreased antimicrobial resistance. States have different requirements for collaborative practice agreements and reimbursement for these clinical services in community pharmacies. Several studies have looked at outcomes related to community pharmacies implementing test and treat programs for influenza and/or GAS. Other studies looked at outcomes related to implementing testing for SARS-CoV-2 and referring for treatment. Most studies described successful implementation and barriers to integration of these programs into pharmacy workflow. Some studies showed that patients want these services to be offered in community pharmacies and are willing to pay for the services. Data show that these services are cost effective compared to physician provider-based treatment. Newer CLIA-waived POCT technology may increase implementation of these services, but studies are needed to evaluate their utility in community pharmacies. Pharmacy schools should implement widespread training on these devices, and research should continue in this area to test the use of newer technology (i.e., multiplexed devices) and their economic impact.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1030-1040
Number of pages11
JournalJACCP Journal of the American College of Clinical Pharmacy
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 2023


  • CLIA-waived
  • community pharmacy
  • pharmacist
  • point-of-care test (POCT)
  • reimbursement
  • test and treat

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacy
  • Pharmaceutical Science
  • Pharmacology (medical)


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