Comparative manufacture and cell-based delivery of antiretroviral nanoformulations

Shantanu Balkundi, Ari S. Nowacek, Ram S. Veerubhotla, Han Chen, Andrea Martinez-Skinner, Upal Roy, R. Lee Mosley, Georgette Kanmogne, Xinming Liu, Alexander V. Kabanov, Tatiana Bronich, Joellyn McMillan, Howard E. Gendelman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

46 Scopus citations


Nanoformulations of crystalline indinavir, ritonavir, atazanavir, and efavirenz were manufactured by wet milling, homogenization or sonication with a variety of excipients. The chemical, biological, immune, virological, and toxicological properties of these formulations were compared using an established monocyte-derived macrophage scoring indicator system. Measurements of drug uptake, retention, release, and antiretroviral activity demonstrated differences amongst preparation methods. Interestingly, for drug cell targeting and antiretroviral responses the most significant difference among the particles was the drug itself. We posit that the choice of drug and formulation composition may ultimately affect clinical utility.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3393-3404
Number of pages12
JournalInternational journal of nanomedicine
StatePublished - 2011


  • Human immunodeficiency virus type one
  • Manufacturing techniques
  • Monocyte-derived macrophage
  • Nanoformulated antiretroviral therapy
  • Nanotoxicology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biophysics
  • Bioengineering
  • Biomaterials
  • Pharmaceutical Science
  • Drug Discovery
  • Organic Chemistry


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