The new design guide, Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG), is an improved methodology for pavement design and the evaluation of paving materials. However, in spite of significant advancements to pre-existing traditional design methods, the MEPDG is known to be limited in its accurate prediction of mechanical responses and damage in asphaltic pavements due to the use of the axisymmetric layered elastic theory for pavement structural analyses, simplified constitutive relations and damage characteristics for the paving materials model, and the use of circular tire loading configurations. To model pavement performance in a more realistic manner, this study attempts finite element modeling to account for three-dimensional pavement structure, viscoelastic paving materials, and actual tire loading configurations. Mechanical responses between the finite element simulations and the MEPDG analyses are compared to monitor any significant differences that should be considered to achieve better pavement analysis and design. Pavement performance and corresponding design life between the two approaches are further compared and discussed.