Comparison of low- and higher-fidelity simulation to train and assess pharmacy students' injection technique

Elizabeth T. Skoy, Heidi N. Eukel, Jeanne E. Frenzel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


Objective. To evaluate 2 forms of simulation used to train and assess third-year pharmacy students' subcutaneous and intramuscular injection techniques. Design. A cross-over comparison was used to evaluate an injection pad vs a patient simulator injection arm to train students in injection administration. Assessment. Students completed a survey instrument rating their proficiency, confidence, and anxiety before and after each form of simulated practice. All students demonstrated competence to administer an injection to a peer after using both forms of simulation. Students' self-ratings of proficiency and confidence improved and anxiety decreased after practicing injections with both forms of simulation. The only significant difference in performance seen between students who used the 2 types of simulations was in students who first practiced with the injection pad followed by the injection arm. Conclusion. Student ability to administer an injection and their self-perceived levels of confidence, proficiency, and anxiety were not dependent on the type of simulation training used.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalAmerican journal of pharmaceutical education
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2013
Externally publishedYes


  • Immunization
  • Injection
  • Simulation
  • Simulator
  • Vaccination

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics(all)


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