Comparison of self-organized micro/nanostructure formation on copper using dual-pulse versus single-pulse femtosecond laser surface processing

Craig A. Zuhlke, Nick Roth, Aaron Ediger, Alfred Tsubaki, Edwin Peng, Mark Anderson, Corey Kruse, Jeffrey Shield, George Gogos, Dennis R. Alexander

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

4 Scopus citations


The use of self-organized micro/nanostructured surfaces formed using femtosecond laser surface processing (FLSP) techniques has become a promising area of research for enhancing surface properties of metals, with many applications including enhancing heat transfer. In this work, we demonstrate advantages of the use of dual-pulse versus single-pulse FLSP techniques to produce self-organized micro/nanostructures on copper. With the dual-pulse technique, the femtosecond pulses out of the laser (spaced 1 ms apart) are split into pulse pairs spaced < 1 ns apart and are focused collinear on the sample surface. Single-pulse FLSP techniques have been widely used to produce self-organized "mound-like" structures on a wide range of metals including a number of stainless steel alloys, aluminum, nickel, titanium, and recently on copper. Due to its high thermal conductivity, copper is used in many critical heat transfer applications and micro/nanostructured copper surfaces are desired to further improve heat transfer characteristics. Using single-pulse (pulses spaced 1 ms apart) FLSP techniques, self-organized microstructure formation on copper requires much higher pulse fluence than is commonly used for producing microstructures on other metals, which results in instabilities during laser processing (non-uniform surfaces), low processing efficiency, and limitations on the control of the types of structures produced. In this paper, we report results that demonstrate that the dual-pulse FLSP technique can be used to produce microstructures on copper more efficiently than using single-pulse FLSP, with better control of the surface structures produced. Cross-sectional subsurface microstructure analysis is also presented for single-pulse versus dual-pulse FLSP functionalized copper surfaces.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationLaser-Based Micro- and Nanoprocessing XIII
EditorsUdo Klotzbach, Akira Watanabe, Rainer Kling
ISBN (Electronic)9781510624542
StatePublished - 2019
EventLaser-Based Micro- and Nanoprocessing XIII 2019 - San Francisco, United States
Duration: Feb 5 2019Feb 7 2019

Publication series

NameProceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
ISSN (Print)0277-786X
ISSN (Electronic)1996-756X


ConferenceLaser-Based Micro- and Nanoprocessing XIII 2019
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CitySan Francisco


  • Femtosecond dual-pulse
  • Femtosecond laser surface processing
  • Surface functionalization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Applied Mathematics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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