Compensatory mechanisms in anterior cruciate ligament deficiency

Anastasios Papadonikolakis, Lance Cooper, Nicholas Stergiou, Anastasios D. Georgoulis, Panayotis N. Soucacos

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

41 Scopus citations


The literature cites numerous studies involving the analysis of movement patterns in anterior cruciate ligament deficient (ACLD) patients. Although several in vivo biomechanical studies have shown that ACLD patients develop protective mechanisms against degenerative diseases, it seems that these adaptations fail to protect the knee from future pathology. Some authors state that ACLD patients adapt to the injury by avoiding quadriceps contraction during gait when the knee is near full extension. However, others have found increased hamstrings and decreased gastrocnemius activity, which normally contribute to the stability of the knee. It seems that further in vivo biomechanical investigation is required to understand the mechanisms of pathological knee joint motions and develop rehabilitation programs, which would delay the progress of developing long-term degenerative diseases.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)235-243
Number of pages9
JournalKnee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jul 2003


  • Anterior cruciate ligament
  • Compensatory
  • Mechanisms

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine


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