Contemporary disparities in progression to orchiopexy for cryptorchidism as reported in the Pediatric Health Information System (PHIS) database

Alexandra R. Siegal, Farimata Mbaye, Chih Peng Chin, Fernando A. Ferrer, Neha R. Malhotra, John H. Makari

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Introduction: When evaluating the timeliness of orchiopexy for cryptorchidism, health disparities are apparent among Hispanic and African American males and those with public insurance. Since the publication of these data, the COVID-19 pandemic has stressed our healthcare system and significantly affected the provision of pediatric urology care. Objective: We sought to assess if certain groups were disproportionately affected in progression to orchiopexy after the diagnosis of cryptorchidism during and after the pandemic in US freestanding children's hospitals. Study design: Using the PHIS database, pediatric patients ≤5 years who underwent orchiopexy between January 2018 and December 2022 were retrospectively analyzed. Exclusion criteria included prematurity, retractile testes, and testicular torsion. Primary outcomes were age at orchiopexy and the proportion of individuals undergoing timely orchiopexy for cryptorchidism. Results: Over the study period 3140 patients ≤5 years old underwent orchiopexy for cryptorchidism. Non-Hispanic Blacks and Hispanics were significantly less likely to have timely orchiopexy and underwent orchiopexy 2.13 and 3.60 months later compared to whites (p < 0.01). As compared to pre-COVID-19, during the pandemic the proportion of patients who had timely surgery was higher and the median age was significantly lower (p = 0.01 and p < 0.01, respectively) in white patients only. Over the study period, patients with public insurance were less likely to have timely orchiopexy and underwent orchiopexy 2.94 months later (p < 0.01) than patients with private insurance. Compared to during the pandemic, post-pandemic a significantly lower proportion of publicly insured patients have since undergone timely orchiopexy (p = 0.04). Patients in the West were less likely to have timely orchiopexy and had a higher age at time of orchiopexy (p < 0.01) than other regions. However, in the West during the pandemic, the proportion of children who had timely surgery was higher compared to pre-and post-COVID-19 (p < 0.01). Discussion: Overall, regardless of insurance status, race, or location, a significant proportion of patients did not undergo timely orchiopexy. During the pandemic white patients had a lower median age and an increased proportion underwent timely orchiopexy, despite the number of orchiopexies remaining constant. Disparities in the post-COVID-19 era have been further exacerbated for publicly insured patients, who a significantly lower proportion of have since undergone timely orchiopexy. Specific efforts are required across the United States to increase timely orchiopexy for all boys. Conclusions: Progression to timely orchiopexy remains low for all boys in the era surrounding COVID-19; certain groups appear to be more adversely affected.[Formula

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalJournal of Pediatric Urology
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - 2024

Keywords

  • Cryptorchidism
  • Health equity
  • Orchiopexy
  • Pediatric urology
  • Surgical disparities
  • Testicular torsion

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Urology

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