Continuous glucose monitoring: A review of the technology and clinical use

David C. Klonoff, David Ahn, Andjela Drincic

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

142 Scopus citations


Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) is an increasingly adopted technology for insulin-requiring patients that provides insights into glycemic fluctuations. CGM can assist patients in managing their diabetes with lifestyle and medication adjustments. This article provides an overview of the technical and clinical features of CGM based on a review of articles in PubMed on CGM from 1999 through January 31, 2017. A detailed description is presented of three professional (retrospective), three personal (real-time) continuous glucose monitors, and three sensor integrated pumps (consisting of a sensor and pump that communicate with each other to determine an optimal insulin dose and adjust the delivery of insulin) that are currently available in United States. We have reviewed outpatient CGM outcomes, focusing on hemoglobin A1c (A1C), hypoglycemia, and quality of life. Issues affecting accuracy, detection of glycemic variability, strategies for optimal use, as well as cybersecurity and future directions for sensor design and use are discussed. In conclusion, CGM is an important tool for monitoring diabetes that has been shown to improve outcomes in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Given currently available data and technological developments, we believe that with appropriate patient education, CGM can also be considered for other patient populations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)178-192
Number of pages15
JournalDiabetes Research and Clinical Practice
StatePublished - Nov 2017


  • CGM
  • Continuous glucose monitor
  • Continuous glucose monitoring
  • Personal
  • Professional
  • Sensor integrated insulin pump

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Endocrinology


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