Contribution of CXCR3-mediated signaling in the metastatic cascade of solid malignancies

Andrew Cannon, Christopher M. Thompson, Rakesh Bhatia, Rakhee R.K. Kandy, Joyce C. Solheim, Surinder K. Batra, Sushil Kumar

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Metastasis is a significant cause of the mortality resulting from solid malignancies. The process of metastasis is complex and is regulated by numerous cancer cell-intrinsic and -extrinsic factors. CXCR3 is a chemokine receptor that is frequently expressed by cancer cells, endothelial cells and immune cells. CXCR3A signaling in cancer cells tends to promote the invasive and migratory phenotype of cancer cells. Indirectly, CXCR3 modulates the anti-tumor immune response resulting in variable effects that can permit or inhibit metastatic progression. Finally, the activity of CXCR3B in endothelial cells is generally angiostatic, which limits the access of cancer cells to key conduits to secondary sites. However, the interaction of these activities within a tumor and the presence of opposing CXCR3 splice variants clouds the picture of the role of CXCR3 in metastasis. Consequently, thorough analysis of the contributions of CXCR3 to cancer metastasis is necessary. This review is an in-depth examination of the involvement of CXCR3 in the metastatic process of solid malignancies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number188628
JournalBiochimica et Biophysica Acta - Reviews on Cancer
Issue number2
StatePublished - Dec 2021


  • CXCR3
  • Cytokines
  • Metastasis
  • Tumor microenvironment
  • cancer

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Genetics
  • Cancer Research


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