Calcium is arguably the most versatile and universal second messenger. As such, calcium plays a key signaling role in cells. The coupling of membrane excitation to cellular responses through calcium has long been recognized.l As an intracellular second messenger, cytosolic free calcium regulates, directly or indirectly, vital cellular functions. Physiological and pathological processes such as fertilization, proliferation, metabolism, membrane excitability, neurotransmitter release, synaptic plasticity, gene transcription, muscle contraction, neuronal injury through ischemia, epilepsy, and trauma, as well as cell death by necrosis or apoptosis, all involve calcium-mediated mechanisms. Thus, mechanisms that regulate calcium homeostasis are central to physiological and pathophysiological processes. In this chapter, cellular calcium influx and calcium release from the endo/sarcoplasmic reticulum and their control by various intracellular metabolites are discussed.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Title of host publication||Nutrients and Cell Signaling|
|Number of pages||32|
|State||Published - Jan 1 2005|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)