Covalent binding of catechol estrogens to glutathione catalyzed by horseradish peroxidase, lactoperoxidase, or rat liver microsomes

Kai Cao, Prabu D. Devanesan, Ragulan Ramanathan, Michael L. Gross, Eleanor G. Rogan, Ercole L. Cavalieri

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28 Scopus citations


Oxidation of catechol estrogens (CE) leads to the reactive electrophilic CE quinones. Reaction of CE-3,4-quinones with DNA has been implicated in tumor initiation. One pathway to prevent this reaction is conjugation of CE quinones with glutathione (GSH). Four CE, 4-hydroxy estrone (4-OHE1), 4- hydroxyestradiol (4-OHE2), 2-OHE1, and 2-OHE2, were conjugated with GSH after oxidation catalyzed by horseradish peroxidase (HRP), lactoperoxidase (LP), or rat liver microsomal cytochrome P450. This reaction is a free- radical chain autoxidation that produces very high yields of products. Six mono-GSH conjugates, 4-OHE1(E2)-2-SG, 2-OHE1(E2)-1-SG, and 2-OHE1(E2)- 4-SG, and four di-GSH conjugates, 4-OHE1(E2)-1,2-bisSG and 2-OHE1(E2)1,4- bisSG, were identified and quantified. These di-GSH conjugates were also obtained quantitatively from oxidation of mono-GSH conjugates by the same enzymes. HRP and LP gave very similar product profiles. Phenobarbital- and 3- methylcholanthrene-induced microsomes with either NADPH or cumene hydroperoxide as cofactor oxidized 4-OHE2 to form similar amounts of GSH conjugates. Enzymatic oxidation of 2-OHE1(E2) in the presence of GSH produced more 2-OHE1(E2)-4-SG than the 1-isomer. This contrasts with the direct reaction of E1(E2)-2,3-Q and GSH, in which the 1-isomer is formed more abundantly than the 4-isomer (Cao, K., Devanesan, P. D., Ramanathan, R., Gross, M. L., Rogan, E. G., and Cavalieri, E. L. (1998) Chem. Res. Toxicol. 11, 909-916). Competitive enzymatic oxidation of equimolar 4-OHE2 and 2- OHE2 in the presence of an equimolar amount of GSH yielded more 2-OHE2 conjugates than 4-OHE2 conjugates, despite E2-3,4-Q being more reactive with GSH than E2-2,3-Q. These results suggest that 2-OHE2 is a better substrate than 4-OHE2 in the catalytic oxidation to quinones, despite the greater reactivity of E2-3,4-Q, compared to E2-2,3-Q, with GSH.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)917-924
Number of pages8
JournalChemical Research in Toxicology
Issue number8
StatePublished - 1998

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Toxicology


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