The description of procedural task trainers includes their use as a training tool to hone technical skills through repetition and rehearsal of procedures in a safe environment before ultimately performing the procedure on a patient. Many procedural task trainers available to date suffer from several drawbacks, including unrealistic anatomy and the tendency to develop user-created 'landmarks' after the trainer tissue undergoes repeated manipulations, potentially leading to inappropriate psychomotor skill development. To ameliorate these drawbacks, a process was created to produce a high-fidelity procedural task trainer, created from anatomy obtained from computed tomography (CT) scans, that utilize ubiquitous three-dimensional (3D) printing technology and off-the-shelf commodity supplies. This method includes creating a 3D printed tissue mold capturing the tissue structure surrounding the skeletal element of interest to encase the bony skeletal structure suspended within the tissue, which is also 3D printed. A tissue medium mixture, which approximates tissue in both high-fidelity geometry and tissue density, is then poured into a mold and allowed to set. After a task trainer has been used to practice a procedure, such as intraosseous line placement, the tissue media, molds, and bones are reclaimable and may be reused to create a fresh task trainer, free of puncture sites and manipulation defects, for use in subsequent training sessions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere62434
JournalJournal of Visualized Experiments
Issue number186
StatePublished - Aug 2022

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Neuroscience
  • General Chemical Engineering
  • General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
  • General Immunology and Microbiology


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