Cryptosporidium and giardia in humans, domestic animals, and village water sources in rural India

Miles E. Daniels, Arpit Shrivastava, Woutrina A. Smith, Priyadarshi Sahu, Mitsunori Odagiri, Pravas R. Misra, Pinaki Panigrahi, Mrutyunjay Suar, Thomas Clasen, Marion W. Jenkins

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

49 Scopus citations


Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia are zoonotic enteric protozoa of significant health concern where sanitation, hygiene, and water supplies are inadequate. We examined 85 stool samples from diarrhea patients, 111 pooled fecal samples by species across seven domestic animal types, and water from tube wells (N = 207) and ponds (N = 94) across 60 villages in coastal Odisha, India, for Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts to measure occurrence, concentration/shedding, and environmental loading rates. Oocysts/cysts were detected in 12% of diarrhea patients. Detection ranged from 0% to 35% for Cryptosporidium and 0% to 67% for Giardia across animal hosts. Animal loading estimates indicate the greatest contributors of environmental oocysts/cysts in the study region are cattle. Ponds were contaminated with both protozoa (oocysts: 37%, cysts: 74%), as were tube wells (oocysts: 10%, cysts: 14%). Future research should address the public health concern highlighted from these findings and investigate the role of domestic animals in diarrheal disease transmission in this and similar settings.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)596-600
Number of pages5
JournalAmerican Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Issue number3
StatePublished - Sep 1 2015

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Parasitology
  • Virology
  • Infectious Diseases


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