Current methods of finish-line exposure by practicing prosthodontists

Paul A. Hansen, Daniel E. Tira, Jeff Barlow

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

51 Scopus citations


Purpose: The purpose of this study was to survey members of The American College of Prosthodontists to evaluate current methods of finish-line exposure. In addition, frequency of use of epinephrine compounds and observed side effects were assessed. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire was mailed to the 2,436 members of The American College of Prosthodontists. Group differences were evaluated using χ2 analysis. Results: Completed questionnaires were returned by 1,246 prosthodontists, which is a return rate of 51%. Ninety-eight percent of respondent prosthodontists use retraction cord, and 48% use a double-cord technique. Plain cord is the most commonly used cord (44%), followed by aluminum chloride-impregnated cord (18%), and epinephrine-impregnated cord (14%). Nine hundred one respondents (81%) soak the cord before placing it in the gingival sulcus. The most common medicament for soaking the cords is buffered aluminum chloride (55%). Side effects to epinephrine were reported by 387 respondents (33%), with the most common side effect reported being increased pulse rate, followed by anxiety. Approximately one quarter (24%) of the prosthodontists surveyed had observed side effects to chemical agents other than epinephrine. Conclusions: Prosthodontists throughout the country use many different techniques and agents to expose finish lines. No statistically significant differences (p > .05) were found between year of specialty training completion groups with respect to retraction cord use. Copper bands are used significantly more frequently (p < .05) in the northwest region of the United States than elsewhere.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)163-170
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Prosthodontics
Issue number3
StatePublished - Sep 1999
Externally publishedYes


  • Aluminum chloride
  • Aluminum sulfate
  • Electrosurgery
  • Epinephrine
  • Ferric subsulfate
  • Finish-line exposure
  • Fixed prosthodontics
  • Gingival curettage
  • Gingival displacement
  • Gingival retraction
  • Impression procedures

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Dentistry


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