Abstract: In 2015, the US Food and Drug Administration approved levodopa-carbidopa intestinal gel (LCIG; also known as carbidopa-levodopa enteral suspension in the US) for the treatment of motor fluctuations in patients with advanced Parkinson’s disease. LCIG provides a continuous infusion of levodopa and carbidopa by means of a portable pump and percutaneous endoscopic gastrojejunostomy tube. The delivery system has a two-fold pharmacokinetic advantage over orally administered carbidopa/levodopa. First, levodopa is delivered in a continuous rather than intermittent, pulsatile fashion. Second, delivery to levodopa’s site of absorption in the jejunum bypasses the stomach, thereby avoiding issues with erratic gastric emptying. In blinded prospective clinical trials and observational studies, LCIG has been shown to significantly decrease “off” time, increase “on” time without troublesome dyskinesia, and reduce dyskinesia. Consistent with procedures in previous studies, LCIG initiation and titration in the pivotal US clinical trial were performed in the inpatient setting and followed a standardized protocol. In clinical practice, however, initiation and titration of LCIG have a great degree of flexibility and, in the US, almost always take place in the outpatient setting. Nonetheless, there remains a significant amount of clinician uncertainty regarding titration in outpatient clinical practice. This review aims to shed light on and provide guidance as to the current methods of titration in the outpatient setting, as informed by the medical literature and the authors’ experiences. Funding: AbbVie, Inc. Plain Language Summary: Plain language summary available for this article.
- Carbidopa/levodopa enteral suspension
- Continuous dopaminergic stimulation
- Device-aided therapy
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pharmacology (medical)