Current Practices for Outpatient Initiation of Levodopa-Carbidopa Intestinal Gel for Management of Advanced Parkinson’s Disease in the United States

Fahd Amjad, Danish Bhatti, Thomas L. Davis, Odinachi Oguh, Rajesh Pahwa, Pavnit Kukreja, Jorge Zamudio, Leonard Verhagen Metman

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations

Abstract

Abstract: In 2015, the US Food and Drug Administration approved levodopa-carbidopa intestinal gel (LCIG; also known as carbidopa-levodopa enteral suspension in the US) for the treatment of motor fluctuations in patients with advanced Parkinson’s disease. LCIG provides a continuous infusion of levodopa and carbidopa by means of a portable pump and percutaneous endoscopic gastrojejunostomy tube. The delivery system has a two-fold pharmacokinetic advantage over orally administered carbidopa/levodopa. First, levodopa is delivered in a continuous rather than intermittent, pulsatile fashion. Second, delivery to levodopa’s site of absorption in the jejunum bypasses the stomach, thereby avoiding issues with erratic gastric emptying. In blinded prospective clinical trials and observational studies, LCIG has been shown to significantly decrease “off” time, increase “on” time without troublesome dyskinesia, and reduce dyskinesia. Consistent with procedures in previous studies, LCIG initiation and titration in the pivotal US clinical trial were performed in the inpatient setting and followed a standardized protocol. In clinical practice, however, initiation and titration of LCIG have a great degree of flexibility and, in the US, almost always take place in the outpatient setting. Nonetheless, there remains a significant amount of clinician uncertainty regarding titration in outpatient clinical practice. This review aims to shed light on and provide guidance as to the current methods of titration in the outpatient setting, as informed by the medical literature and the authors’ experiences. Funding: AbbVie, Inc. Plain Language Summary: Plain language summary available for this article.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2233-2246
Number of pages14
JournalAdvances in Therapy
Volume36
Issue number9
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 1 2019

Keywords

  • Carbidopa/levodopa enteral suspension
  • Continuous dopaminergic stimulation
  • Device-aided therapy
  • Duodopa
  • Duopa
  • LCIG
  • Neurology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology (medical)

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