The role of cytokines and chemokines in neuroimmune regulation is highly broad and complex, due to the overwhelming number of molecules and their overlapping, synergizing and antagonizing effects of various factors. Classifying any individual factor or family of factors as beneficial or detrimental oversimplifies the interactions between various cell types and the signaling cascades initiated by them. Instead, cytokines need to be considered as a balanced network, where subtle modifications can shift cells towards different outcomes such as death, proliferation, migration, and induction of inflammation or inhibition of immune responses. Prolonged inflammation has a profound impact on the cytokine network and the cells they target, consequently altering the outcome of cell populations. The central nervous system is a unique environment that is exquisitely sensitive to cytokines, growth factors, and chemokines; the dysregulation that is rampant during neurodegenerative diseases permanently transforms brain function. The profile of cytokines, growth factors, and chemokines presented in the brain likely dictate the fate of neurons in the diseases. The understanding of cytokines, growth factor, and chemokine effects and how the expression or activity of those factors can be manipulated may provide the key to diagnosing or treating neuroimmunological diseases.
- Alzheimer’s disease
- Chemotaxis cytokine
- Growth factor
- Multiple sclerosis
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Microbiology(all)
- Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics(all)