The mechanisms linking HIV-1 replication, macrophage biology, and multinucleated giant cell formation are incompletely understood. With the advent of functional proteomics, the characterization, regulation, and transformation of HIV-1-infected macrophage-secreted proteins can be ascertained. To these ends, we performed proteomic analyses of culture fluids derived from HIV-1 infected monocyte-derived macrophages. Robust reorganization, phosphorylation, and exosomal secretion of the cytoskeletal proteins proilie 1 and actin were observed in conjunction with productive viral replication and giant cell formation. Actin and profilin 1 recruitment to the macrophage plasma membrane paralleled virus-induced cytopathicity, podosome formation, and cellular fusion. Poly-L-proline, an inhibitor of profilin 1-mediated actin polymerization, inhibited cytoskeletal transformations and suppressed, in part, progeny virion production. These data support the idea that actin and profilin 1 rearrangement along with esosomal secretion affect viral replication and cytopathicity. Such events favor the virus over the host cell and provide insights into macrophage defense mechanisms used to contain viral growth and how they may be affected during progressive HIV-1 infection.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy