Dependence Stage and Pharmacoeconomic Outcomes in Patients With Alzheimer Disease

Tzeyu L. Michaud, Robin High, Mary E. Charlton, Daniel L Murman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


The level of assistance patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) require in their care may be an important predictor of resource use, costs of care, and quality of life. The Dependence Scale (DS), a measure of care-assistance required, was used to estimate costs of care and quality of life of patients with AD categorized into 6 dependence stages based upon the summated item scores of the DS. Data were derived from a 3-year, noninterventional study of 132 patients with probable AD (ages, 50 to 85 y) and caregiver dyads. We investigated the association between DS scores and health care costs, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), caregiver burden and estimated annual costs and HRQoL for 6 dependence stages in adjusted models. DS scores were significant predictors of health care costs, HRQoL, and caregiver burden. The estimated annual health care costs and a measure of HRQoL (EuroQoL-5D) ranged from $11,418 and 1.00 for those at very mild dependence stage to $101,715 and 0.26 for those at very severe dependence stage. DS scores classified into 6 dependence stages provides a useful method to estimate unique levels of care-associated costs and health utilities for pharmacoeconomic evaluations of new treatments for AD.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)209-217
Number of pages9
JournalAlzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders
Issue number3
StatePublished - 2017


  • Alzheimer disease
  • costs of care
  • dependence scale
  • disease stage
  • pharmacoeconomic evaluation
  • quality of life

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Psychology
  • Gerontology
  • Geriatrics and Gerontology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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