Despite significant progress in understanding the disease mechanism of traumatic brain injury (TBI), promising preclinical therapeutics have seldom been translated into successful clinical outcomes, partially because the model animals have physiological and functional differences in the central nervous system (CNS) compared to humans. Human relevant models are thus urgently required. Here, an in vitro mild TBI (mTBI) modeling system is reported based on 3D cultured human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) derived neural progenitor cells (iPSC-NPCs) to evaluate consequences of single and repetitive mTBI using a 3D printed mini weight-drop impact device. Computational simulation is performed to understand the single/cumulative effects of weight-drop impact on the NPC differentiated neurospheres. Experimental results reveal that neurospheres show reactive astrogliosis and glial scar formation after repetitive (10 hits) mild impacts, while no astrocyte activation is found after one or two mild impacts. A 3D co-culture model of human microglia cells with neurospheres is further developed. It is found that astrocyte response is promoted even after two mild impacts, possibly caused by the chronic neuroinflammation after microglia activation. The in vitro mTBI modeling system recapitulates several hallmarks of the brain impact injury and might serve as a good platform for future drug screening.
- 3D printing
- iPSC derived neural progenitor cells
- repetitive mild traumatic brain injury
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biomedical Engineering
- Pharmaceutical Science