Despite the successes provided by vaccination, many challenges still exist with respect to controlling new and re-emerging infectious diseases. Innovative vaccine platforms composed of adaptable adjuvants able to appropriately modulate immune responses, induce long-lived immunity in a single dose, and deliver immunogens in a safe and stable manner via multiple routes of administration are needed. This work describes the development of a novel biodegradable polyanhydride nanoparticle-based vaccine platform administered as a single intranasal dose that induced long-lived protective immunity against respiratory disease caused by Yesinia pestis, the causative agent of pneumonic plague. Relative to the responses induced by the recombinant protein F1-V alone and MPLA-adjuvanted F1-V, the nanoparticle-based vaccination regimen induced an immune response that was characterized by high titer and high avidity IgG1 anti-F1-V antibody that persisted for at least 23 weeks post-vaccination. After challenge, no Y. pestis were recovered from the lungs, livers, or spleens of mice vaccinated with the nanoparticle-based formulation and histopathological appearance of lung, liver, and splenic tissues from these mice post-vaccination was remarkably similar to uninfected control mice.
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