Determination of restriction enzyme activity when cutting DNA labeled with the TOTO dye family

April Maschmann, Kristy L. Kounovsky-Shafer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Optical mapping, a single DNA molecule genome analysis platform that can determine methylation profiles, uses fluorescently labeled DNA molecules that are elongated on the surface and digested with a restriction enzyme to produce a barcode of that molecule. Understanding how the cyanine fluorochromes affect enzyme activity can lead to other fluorochromes used in the optical mapping system. The effects of restriction digestion on fluorochrome labeled DNA (Ethidium Bromide, DAPI, H33258, EthD-1, TOTO-1) have been analyzed previously. However, TOTO-1 is a part of a family of cyanine fluorochromes (YOYO-1, TOTO-1, BOBO-1, POPO-1, YOYO-3, TOTO-3, BOBO-3, and POPO-3) and the rest of the fluorochromes have not been examined in terms of their effects on restriction digestion. In order to determine if the other dyes in the TOTO-1 family inhibit restriction enzymes in the same way as TOTO-1, lambda DNA was stained with a dye from the TOTO family and digested. The restriction enzyme activity in regards to each dye, as well as each restriction enzyme, was compared to determine the extent of digestion. YOYO-1, TOTO-1, and POPO-1 fluorochromes inhibited ScaI-HF, PmlI, and EcoRI restriction enzymes. Additionally, the mobility of labeled DNA fragments in an agarose gel changed depending on which dye was intercalated.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)406-417
Number of pages12
JournalNucleosides, Nucleotides and Nucleic Acids
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 3 2017


  • Fluorochrome
  • TOTO-1
  • YOYO-1
  • gel electrophoresis
  • restriction enzyme digestion

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Medicine
  • Genetics


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