Nitrate and atrazine (ATR) occur in combination in some drinking-water supplies and might react to form N-nitrosoatrazine (NNAT), which is reportedly more toxic than nitrate, nitrite, or ATR. Current evidence from population-based studies indicates that exposure to nitrate, nitrite, and nitrosatable compounds increases the risk of congenital defects and/or rate of embryo lethality. To test the hypothesis that NNAT induces malformations during embryogenesis, chicken embryos were examined for lethality and developmental abnormalities after treating fertilized eggs with 0.06-3.63 μg NNAT. After 5 d of incubation (Hamburger and Hamilton stage 27), 90% of embryos in NNAT-treated eggs were alive, of which 23% were malformed. Malformations included heart and neural-tube defects, caudal regression, gastroschisis, microphthalmia, anophthalmia, and craniofacial hypoplasia. The findings from this investigation suggest further studies are needed to determine the mechanisms underlying NNAT-induced embryotoxicity.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||8|
|Journal||Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health - Part A: Current Issues|
|State||Published - Sep 2 2013|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis