Diagnostic deficiencies of C. difficile infection among patients in a tertiary hospital in Saudi Arabia: A laboratory-based case series

Reem AlJindan, Doaa M. AlEraky, J. Francis Borgio, Sayed AbdulAzeez, Baha Abdalhamid, Nehal Mahmoud, Maha Farhat

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) has become a threatening public health problem in the developed world. In the kingdom of Saudi Arabia, prevalence of CDI is still unknown due to limited surveillance protocols and diagnostic resources. We used a two-step procedure to study and confirm C. difficile cases. We also studied toxin profiles of these isolates. Stool samples were collected from symptomatic patients and clinically suspected of CDI for almost 12 months. Isolates were confirmed by culture method followed by 16S rRNA sequencing. Multiplex PCR was performed for the identification of toxin A, toxin B and binary toxin genes and compared to Gene Expert results. Out of the 47 collected samples, 27 were successfully grown on culture media. 18 samples were confirmed as C. difficile by both culture and 16S rRNA sequencing. Interestingly, the rest of the isolates (9 species) belonged to different genera. Our results showed 95% of samples were positive for both toxin A and B (tcdA, tcdB) and all samples exhibited the toxin gene regulator tcdC. All samples were confirmed negative for the binary toxin gene ctdB and 11% of the isolates were positive for ctdA gene. Interestingly, one isolate harbored the binary toxin gene (cdtA+) and tested negative for both toxins A and B. We believe that combining the standard culture method with molecular techniques can make the detection of C. difficile more accurate.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)4472-4477
Number of pages6
JournalSaudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Volume28
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 2021

Keywords

  • 16S rRNA sequencing
  • Binary toxin
  • CCFA medium
  • Clostridioides difficile
  • Toxin A
  • Toxin B

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)

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