Differentiating withdrawal patterns between smokers and smokeless tobacco users

Dennis E. McChargue, Frank L. Collins

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


The present study was designed to document smokeless tobacco withdrawal patterns and to examine differential withdrawal responses between smokers and smokeless users. Participants (N = 19) were studied under deprivation and nondeprivation conditions, 1 condition per week. The Withdrawal Symptoms Checklist was administered to assess cognitive and affective changes. Both smokers and smokeless users experienced substantially more withdrawal at 48- hr deprivation compared to the 48-hr nondeprivation condition. Participants in both groups endorsed decreasingly fewer withdrawal symptoms from 0 hr to 48 hr on nondeprivation days. This downward trend suggests a need for stabilizing withdrawal responses before deprivation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)205-208
Number of pages4
JournalExperimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Issue number2
StatePublished - 1998
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Pharmacology (medical)


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