Direct and collateral effects of restraints and restraint fading

Wayne W. Fisher, Cathleen C. Piazza, Lynn G. Bowman, Gregory P. Hanley, John D. Adelinis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

44 Scopus citations


Mechanical restraints are commonly used to reduce the risks associated with severe self-injurious behavior (SIB), but may result in movement restriction and adverse side effects (e.g., bone demineralization). Restraint fading may provide a method for decreasing SIB while increasing movement and reducing these side effects. In the current investigation, rigid arm sleeves and restraint fading (gradually reducing the rigidity of the sleeves) were used with 3 clients who engaged in hand-to-head SIB. Restraints and fading reduced the hand-to-head SIB of all clients. However, for 1 client, the addition of a water mist procedure further reduced SIB to near-zero levels. For a 2nd client, another form of SIB developed that was not prevented by the rigid sleeves. For a 3rd client, a topography of SIB that was not physically prevented by the rigid sleeves was also reduced when restraints and fading were introduced.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)105-120
Number of pages16
JournalJournal of applied behavior analysis
Issue number1
StatePublished - 1997
Externally publishedYes


  • Developmental disabilities
  • Restraint fading
  • Self-injurious behavior
  • Stimulus control

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Philosophy
  • Sociology and Political Science
  • Applied Psychology


Dive into the research topics of 'Direct and collateral effects of restraints and restraint fading'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this