Direct graphene growth on Co 3O 4(111) by molecular beam epitaxy

Mi Zhou, Frank L. Pasquale, Peter A. Dowben, Alex Boosalis, Mathias Schubert, Vanya Darakchieva, Rositza Yakimova, Lingmei Kong, Jeffry A. Kelber

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

33 Scopus citations


Direct growth of graphene on Co 3O 4(111) at 1000K was achieved by molecular beam epitaxy from a graphite source. Auger spectroscopy shows a characteristic sp 2carbon lineshape, at average carbon coverages from 0.4 to 3ML. Low energy electron diffraction (LEED) indicates (111) ordering of the sp 2carbon film with a lattice constant of 2.5(0.1) characteristic of graphene. Sixfold symmetry of the graphene diffraction spots is observed at 0.4, 1 and 3ML. The LEED data also indicate an average domain size of 1800, and show an incommensurate interface with the Co 3O 4(111) substrate, where the latter exhibits a lattice constant of 2.8(0.1). Core level photoemission shows a characteristically asymmetric C(1s) feature, with the expected to * satellite feature, but with a binding energy for the 3ML film of 284.9(0.1)eV, indicative of substantial graphene-to-oxide charge transfer. Spectroscopic ellipsometry data demonstrate broad similarity with graphene samples physically transferred to SiO 2 or grown on SiC substrates, but with the to * absorption blue-shifted, consistent with charge transfer to the substrate. The ability to grow graphene directly on magnetically and electrically polarizable substrates opens new opportunities for industrial scale development of charge-and spin-based devices.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number072201
JournalJournal of Physics Condensed Matter
Issue number7
StatePublished - Feb 22 2012

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Materials Science
  • Condensed Matter Physics


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