Direct writing target structures by two-photon polymerization

L. J. Jiang, J. H. Campbell, Y. F. Lu, T. Bernat, N. Petta

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

44 Scopus citations


Two-photon polymerization (2PP) offers an attractive option for direct writing micron- to millimeter-sized laser target components that support high-energy-density plasma physics research. 2PP was used to deterministically print a number of common targetlike structures including tubes, spatially periodic Rayleigh-Taylor-like surfaces, and low-density foams. The structures were printed using commercially available acrylic photoresins. The elemental compositions are reported for comparison with other polymers used for making target components. A number of foamlike structures ranging in size from tens to hundreds of microns and varying in density from 600 to 60 mg/cm3 were readily printed in times ranging from several seconds to a few hours depending on the size. In addition, direct printing was demonstrated to fabricate graded-density foam comprising 12 individual layers with a vertical density gradient of 600 to 80 mg/cm3. Control of shrinkage and deformation during development and subsequent drying remains a challenge for certain structures and a focus of ongoing research.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)295-309
Number of pages15
JournalFusion Science and Technology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Aug 1 2016


  • Inertial confinement fusion fabrication
  • Microfabrication
  • Two-photon polymerization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Nuclear and High Energy Physics
  • Nuclear Energy and Engineering
  • General Materials Science
  • Mechanical Engineering


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