Disproportionate School Disciplinary Responses: An Exploration of Prisonization and Minority Threat Hypothesis Among Black, Hispanic, and Native American Students

Meghan M. Mitchell, Gaylene Armstrong, Todd Armstrong

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Scopus citations


This research tests two potential explanations of school disciplinary responses: minority threat hypothesis and prisonization of schools. Data from the Arizona Safe and Drug-Free Schools (SDFS) survey and Arizona Youth Survey (AYS) are analyzed using ordinary least squares (OLS) regressions. Findings demonstrate that the percentage of Black, Hispanic, and Native American students was not associated with exclusionary responses to school misconduct, but was linked to decreases in mild and restorative disciplinary practices. Findings support the hypothesis that minority threat reduces access to mild and restorative disciplinary responses. Although, further research is needed on the roles of mental health professionals and counselors in school disciplinary procedures to better guide policy and school administrator expectations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)80-102
Number of pages23
JournalCriminal Justice Policy Review
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Feb 1 2020



  • minority threat hypothesis
  • racial disparities
  • restorative justice
  • school discipline
  • school misconduct

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Law

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